Detection of Human Papillomavirus Dna Among Women in Itesiwaju Local Government Area of Oyo State


  • Layemo Princewill Adeoye Lead city University, Ibadan, Nigeria.
  • Peter Olaoluwa Adediji Nigeria Centre for Disease Control and Prevention.
  • Muideen Olatunji Executive Secretary, Oyo State Primary Healthcare Board.
  • Alimi Grace O. University of Ibadan (Department of Virology, College of Medicine UCH, Ibadan.)
  • Judith Adaora Arachie Institute of Human Virology Nigeria FCT-Abuja


Human Papillomavirus, DNA, Women.


In most developing countries, cervical cancer is one of the most prevalent diseases, and genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a recognized cause of this cancer. Continuously, high-risk HPV infection, particularly strains 16 and 18, has been associated to cervical cancer. Currently available in Nigeria are the HPV vaccines Cervarix and Gardasil, which respectively target two (16 and 18) and four (6, 11, 16 and 18) strains. In Itesiwaju, a rural Local Government in Oyo State, women were enrolled in this study to look for Human Papillomavirus DNA. With residents from many ethnic groups, the Community is situated on a large piece of ground. Farming and mining are the two main occupations of the locals.

All the samples tested were collected from consenting women, some who are from farming communities and mining sites, others from other occupations and visit the public health facilities all around the Local Government. Information was collected from each participant using a questionnaire that captured demographic and sexual history. Genomic DNA was extracted from samples using commercial extraction reagents. The presence of HPV was detected by PCR using a primer (PGMY09/11) targeting E6/E7 genes. The PCR products were subjected to gel electrophoresis and visualized under a UV light.

A total of the 126 samples were tested and 14 of them were positive with HPV DNA giving an overall HPV prevalence rate of 11.1% in Itesiwaju. The largest proportion of participants (43.2%) fell within the 26-35 years age group, followed by the 36-45 years age group (30.7%). The 18-25 years age group accounted for 26.1% of the respondents.

 The age range of 26 to 35 had the highest number of positive cases, which indicates a higher rate of sexual activity, according to subgroup analysis. These findings highlight the need for focused measures to address HPV infection in Itesiwaju LGA, such as awareness raising campaigns, vaccination programs, and routine screening. To comprehend the dynamics of HPV transmission and create effective preventative tactics that may be unique to the study region, more investigation and joint efforts are advised.


Download data is not yet available.


Adesina OA, Olugbenga-Bello AI, Ojemakinde OM, Adekanmbi VT, Adefisoye VA, Oyebanji AF. Prevalence and determinants of human papillomavirus infection among female undergraduate students in Ibadan, Nigeria. Pan Afr Med J. 2017; 28:213.

Ashaka, O.S.; Omoare, A.A.; James, A.B.; Adeyemi, O.O.; Oladiji, F.; Adeniji, K.A.; Okunade, K.S.; Agbede, O.O. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Genital Human Papillomavirus Infections among Women in Lagos, Nigeria. Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2022, 7, 386.

Bernard HU, Burk RD, Chen Z, van Doorslaer K, Zur Hausen H. Classification of papillomaviruses (PVs) based on 189 PV types and proposal of taxonomic amendments. Virology. 2010;401(1):70-79. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2010.02.002

Bosch FX, de Sanjosé S. Chapter 1: Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer--burden and assessment of causality. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 2003;(31):3-13. doi: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.jncimonographs.a003479

Buck, C. B., & Cheng, N. (2019). Human papillomavirus (HPV) capsid protein structure and interactions with potential antiviral compounds. Current opinion in virology, 39, 117–126.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022). Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Cancer. Retrieved from

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Human papillomavirus (HPV). Retrieved from

Dauda, W., Omole-Ohonsi, A., Adewole, A., & Olaniyan, O. (2021). Prevalence and predictors of human papillomavirus infection among women attending a tertiary hospital in Benin City, Nigeria. Journal of Global Oncology, 7, 99-107. doi: 10.1200/JGO.20.00382

de Villiers EM, et al. (2004). Classification of papillomaviruses. Virology, 324(1), 17-27.

de Sanjosé S, Brotons M, Pavón MA. The natural history of human papillomavirus infection. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2018; 47:2-13. doi: 10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2017.07.002

DeGuzman, P. B., Coker, A. L., Tsui, J., Eggleston, K. S., & Zaidi, A. (2020). Exploring sociodemographic and psychosocial factors associated with HPV vaccine initiation among Black women aged 18-26 years. Vaccine, 38(4), 943-950.

Doorbar, J. (2006). Molecular biology of human papillomavirus infection and cervical cancer. Clinical science (London, England: 1979), 110(5), 525–541.

Egawa N, Egawa K, Griffin H, Doorbar J. Human Papillomaviruses; Epithelial Tropisms, and the Development of Neoplasia. Viruses. 2015 Jul 16;7(7):3863-90. doi: 10.3390/v7072802. PMID: 26193301; PMCID: PMC4517131.

Ezechi, O. C., Gab-Okafor, C. V., Ostergren, P. O., et al. (2014). The burden, distribution, and risk factors for cervical oncogenic human papilloma virus infection in HIV positive Nigerian women. Virology Journal, 11, 5. doi: 10.1186/1743-422X-11-5

Globocan 2020. Nigeria Fact Sheet. Available from:

Guan P, Howell-Jones R, Li N. Human papillomavirus types in 115,789 HPV-positive women: a meta-analysis from cervical infection to cancer. Int J Cancer. 2012;131(10):2349-2359. doi:10.1002/ijc.27485

IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Human Papillomaviruses. Lyon (FR): International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2007. (IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, No. 90.) 1, Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection.

Jardine, A. M., & Brown, M. C. (2019). Structural insights into human papillomavirus entry, disassembly, and assembly. Annual review of virology, 6(1), 237–256.

Journal of the National Cancer Institute. "Watchful Waiting May Be Proper Initial Treatment For Some HPV Infections, Study Suggests." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 26 March 2008. .

Man, Stephen. Human cellular immune responses against human papillomaviruses in cervical neoplasia. Expert reviews in molecular medicine. 1998. 1-19. 10.1017/S1462399498000210.

Meelis Kadaja, Toomas Silla, Ene Ustav, Mart Ustav, Papillomavirus DNA replication — From initiation to genomic instability, Virology, Volume 384, Issue 2, 2009,Pages 360-368, ISSN 0042-6822,

Moody CA, Laimins LA. Human papillomavirus oncoproteins: pathways to transformation. Nat Rev Cancer. 2010;10(8):550-560.

National Cancer Institute. (2022). HPV and Cancer. Retrieved from

National Population Commission. Nigeria and ICF International. Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2018. Abuja, Nigeria, and Rockville, Maryland, USA: NPC and ICF International; 2019.

National Primary Health Care Development Agency. National guidelines for HPV vaccination in Nigeria. Accessed April 20, 2023.




How to Cite

Layemo Princewill Adeoye, Peter Olaoluwa Adediji, Muideen Olatunji, Alimi Grace O., & Judith Adaora Arachie. (2023). Detection of Human Papillomavirus Dna Among Women in Itesiwaju Local Government Area of Oyo State. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEALTH SYSTEMS AND MEDICAL SCIENCES, 2(9), 1–14. Retrieved from