Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Infertility Problems Among Baghdad City Populations: Associations with Food Habits and Environmental Pollution


  • Loqman J. Tawfiq Technical Nursing Department, Medical Technical Institute, Middle Technical University, Baghdad, Iraq



prevalence, food habits, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, H. pylori, infertility


This study aimed to determine the incidence of Helicobacter pylori infection among Baghdad city populations and explore associations with infertility, food habits, environmental factors, and comorbidities like type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The researcher examined 120 people in Baghdad from June 2020 to March 2022. H. pylori antibodies were detected using rapid diagnostic kits. Information on age, gender, food habits, T2DM, smoking status, and living conditions was collected. Semen analysis was done in H. pylori positive and negative males with infertility. H. pylori seroprevalence was 62.5%. Prevalence increased with age (p<0.05) and was higher among females (70%) than males (62.5%), (p<0.001). Non-spicy food consumers showed higher prevalence (67%) than spicy food eaters (33%), (p<0.001). T2DM patients demonstrated substantially higher prevalence than non-diabetics (81% vs 67%), (p=0.001). Rural inhabitants revealed greater prevalence than urban dwellers (66.6% vs 33.3% for males; 70% vs 40% for females), (p<0.01). Smokers exhibited higher seropositivity than non-smokers (41% vs 24%), (p<0.001). Infertile men showed poorer semen parameters with H. pylori infection (p<0.01). Good hygiene, healthy diets, and avoiding smoking are vital to curb H. pylori infection. Testing for this bacterium should be considered in infertility assessments.


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How to Cite

Tawfiq, L. J. . (2024). Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Infertility Problems Among Baghdad City Populations: Associations with Food Habits and Environmental Pollution. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEALTH SYSTEMS AND MEDICAL SCIENCES, 3(3), 209–217.