Impact of Seeding Rates and Kinetin Levels on Barley Physiology and Yield


  • Lothar Khalid Ahmed Field Crops Departement, College of Agriculture, Tikrit University, Tikrit, Iraq


Barley, Kinetin, Physiological Characteristics, Barley Yield


A field experiment was conducted in the Al-Jazeera area, near Tikrit, to investigate the effects of seeding rates and kinetin levels on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) variety Shu'a. Despite extensive research on barley growth, the optimal seeding rates and kinetin applications remain underexplored. This study aimed to determine the best seeding rate and kinetin concentration to enhance barley's physiological traits and yield. Using a randomized complete block design with three replications, two seeding rates (160, 180 kg ha-1) and three kinetin levels (75, 50, 0 mg L-1) were tested. Results showed that a seeding rate of 160 kg ha-1 significantly improved the absolute growth rate (0.17994 mg day-1), relative growth rate (16.675 mg g-1 day-1), and thousand-seed weight (35.91 g). Kinetin at 75 mg L-1 outperformed other concentrations, enhancing absolute growth rate (0.18781 mg day-1), relative growth rate (16.827 mg g-1 day-1), grains per spike (38.299 spike-1), and thousand-seed weight (39.880 g). The findings suggest that 160 kg ha-1 seeding rate and 75 mg L-1 kinetin concentration optimize barley growth and yield, providing practical implications for barley cultivation practices.

Author Biography

Lothar Khalid Ahmed, Field Crops Departement, College of Agriculture, Tikrit University, Tikrit, Iraq




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How to Cite

Ahmed, L. K. (2024). Impact of Seeding Rates and Kinetin Levels on Barley Physiology and Yield. International Journal of Biological Engineering and Agriculture, 3(3), 205–211. Retrieved from