Role of Fungi in Bioremediation and Environmental Pollution

A Review Article


  • Duha Bahaa Mohammed Al-Fayaad College of Science, Karkh University of Science, Iraq
  • Saad Hussein Khudhair College of Science, Karkh University of Science, Iraq
  • Abdulrahman Saadi Mohammed College of Science, Karkh University of Science, Iraq


fungi, bioremediation, environment pollutent


The significance of fungi in all ecosystems as decomposers and symbionts is discussed in the presented paragraph. The most sustainable and safest technique to clean up polluted environments is fungal bioremediation. Fungi may remove a broad range of recalcitrant contaminants and toxins in a number of ways, including by secreting potent enzymes. Through using a variety of biological techniques to convert resistant contaminants into compounds that are safe for the environment, the bioremediation process is both economical and environmentally beneficial. Fungal form and diverse metabolic capabilities make them important bioremediation agents. Microbes need organic matter from pollution in order to properly develop and flourish. Mineralizing pollutants through converting them to water, carbon dioxide, hydrochloric acid, nitrogen gas, etc. is the primary bio-remediation goal. Heavy metals as well as radioactive ions are transformed into less soluble forms, making their decomposition challenging.


A. Akcil, C. Erust, S. Ozdemiroglu, V. Fonti, and ..., “A review of approaches and techniques used in aquatic contaminated sediments: metal removal and stabilization by chemical and biotechnological processes,” Journal of Cleaner …, 2015, [Online]. Available:

L. Betancor, G. R. Johnson, and H. R. Luckarift, “Stabilized laccases as heterogeneous bioelectrocatalysts,” ChemCatChem, 2013, doi: 10.1002/cctc.201200611.

J. Bisht, N. S. K. Harsh, L. M. S. Palni, V. Agnihotri, and ..., “Biodegradation of chlorinated organic pesticides endosulfan and chlorpyrifos in soil extract broth using fungi,” Remediation …, 2019, doi: 10.1002/rem.21599.

G. Cecchi, G. Vagge, L. Cutroneo, G. Greco, and ..., “Fungi as potential tool for polluted port sediment remediation,” … Science and Pollution …, 2019, doi: 10.1007/s11356-019-04844-5.

A. Ceci, F. Pinzari, F. Russo, A. M. Persiani, and ..., “Roles of saprotrophic fungi in biodegradation or transformation of organic and inorganic pollutants in co-contaminated sites,” Applied microbiology and …, 2019, doi: 10.1007/s00253-018-9451-1.

H. Claus, “Microbial Degradation of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene In Vitro and in Natural Environments,” Biological remediation of explosive residues, 2014, doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-01083-0_2.

L. Connell and H. Staudigel, “Fungal diversity in a dark oligotrophic volcanic ecosystem (DOVE) on Mount Erebus, Antarctica,” Biology (Basel), 2013, [Online]. Available:

A. Cruz-Hernández, A. Tomasini-Campocosio, and ..., “Inoculation of seed-borne fungus in the rhizosphere of Festuca arundinacea promotes hydrocarbon removal and pyrene accumulation in roots,” Plant Soil, 2013, doi: 10.1007/s11104-012-1292-6.

L. Echeveria, S. Gilmore, S. Harrison, and ..., “Versatile bio-organism detection using microspheres for future biodegradation and bioremediation studies,” … , and Beam Control …, 2020, doi: 10.1117/12.2543800.short.

D. Egamberdieva and B. Lugtenberg, “Use of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria to alleviate salinity stress in plants,” Use of Microbes for the Alleviation of …, 2014, doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-9466-9_4.

D. Egamberdieva, F. Kamilova, S. Validov, and ..., “High incidence of plant growth‐stimulating bacteria associated with the rhizosphere of wheat grown on salinated soil in Uzbekistan,” Environmental …, 2008, doi: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2007.01424.x.

Q. J. Fan and J. H. Liu, “Colonization with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus affects growth, drought tolerance and expression of stress-responsive genes in Poncirus trifoliata,” Acta Physiol Plant, 2011, doi: 10.1007/s11738-011-0789-6.

R. M. Francis and D. J. Read, “Mutualism and antagonism in the mycorrhizal symbiosis, with special reference to impacts on plant community structure,” Canadian Journal of Botany, 1995, doi: 10.1139/b95-391.

P. Franken, “The plant strengthening root endophyte Piriformospora indica: potential application and the biology behind,” Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 2012, doi: 10.1007/s00253-012-4506-1.

M. L. Friesen, “Microbially mediated plant functional traits,” Molecular microbial ecology of the rhizosphere, 2013, doi: 10.1002/9781118297674.ch8.

R. J. Ganley, S. J. Brunsfeld, and ..., “A community of unknown, endophytic fungi in western white pine,” Proceedings of the …, 2004, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0401513101.

S. Gianinazzi, A. Gollotte, M. N. Binet, D. van Tuinen, and ..., “Agroecology: the key role of arbuscular mycorrhizas in ecosystem services,” Mycorrhiza, 2010, doi: 10.1007/s00572-010-0333-3.

J. H. Graham and D. M. Eissenstat, “Field evidence for the carbon cost of citrus mycorrhizas,” New Phytol, 1998, doi: 10.1046/j.1469-8137.1998.00251.x.

I. Haq and A. Raj, “Pulp and paper mill wastewater: ecotoxicological effects and bioremediation approaches for environmental safety,” Bioremediation of Industrial Waste for Environmental …, 2020, doi: 10.1007/978-981-13-3426-9_14.

N. T. Joutey, W. Bahafid, H. Sayel, and ..., “Biodegradation: involved microorganisms and genetically engineered microorganisms,” Biodegradation-life of …, 2013, [Online]. Available:

A. K. S. Kameshwar and W. Qin, “Systematic review of publicly available non-Dikarya fungal proteomes for understanding their plant biomass-degrading and bioremediation potentials,” Bioresour Bioprocess, 2019, doi: 10.1186/s40643-019-0264-6.

V. Kumar and S. K. Dwivedi, “Hexavalent chromium reduction ability and bioremediation potential of Aspergillus flavus CR500 isolated from electroplating wastewater,” Chemosphere, 2019, [Online]. Available:

K. V. C. Kumar, K. R. Chandrashekar, and ..., “Variation in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and phosphatase activity associated with Sida cardifoliain Karnataka,” World Journal of …, 2008, [Online]. Available:

M. Kumar, R. Prasad, P. Goyal, P. Teotia, N. Tuteja, and ..., “Environmental biodegradation of xenobiotics: role of potential microflora,” Xenobiotics in the soil …, 2017, doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-47744-2_21.

V. Kumar, S. K. Shahi, and S. Singh, “Bioremediation: an eco-sustainable approach for restoration of contaminated sites,” Microbial bioprospecting for sustainable …, 2018, doi: 10.1007/978-981-13-0053-0_6.

V. Kumar, M. Goala, P. Kumar, J. Singh, and ..., “Integration of treated agro-based wastewaters (TAWs) management with mushroom cultivation,” Environmental …, 2020, [Online]. Available:

Y. Li et al., “Increased virulence of transgenic Trichoderma koningi strains to the Asian corn borer larvae by overexpressing heterologous chit42 gene with chitin-binding …,” Journal of Environmental …, 2013, doi: 10.1080/03601234.2013.742386.

P. J. Lien, H. J. Ho, T. H. Lee, W. L. Lai, and ..., “Effects of aquifer heterogeneity and geochemical variation on petroleum-hydrocarbon biodegradation at a gasoline spill site,” Advanced materials …, 2015, [Online]. Available:

A. Magnin, L. Hoornaert, E. Pollet, and ..., “Isolation and characterization of different promising fungi for biological waste management of polyurethanes,” Microbial …, 2019, doi: 10.1111/1751-7915.13346.

R. Margesin, D. Labbe, F. Schinner, and ..., “Characterization of hydrocarbon-degrading microbial populations in contaminated and pristine alpine soils,” Applied and …, 2003, doi: 10.1128/aem.69.6.3085-3092.2003.

S. P. McGrath and F. J. Zhao, “Phytoextraction of metals and metalloids from contaminated soils,” Curr Opin Biotechnol, 2003, [Online]. Available:

M. Megharaj, B. Ramakrishnan, K. Venkateswarlu, and ..., “Bioremediation approaches for organic pollutants: a critical perspective,” Environment …, 2011, [Online]. Available:

A. Mishra and A. Malik, “Novel fungal consortium for bioremediation of metals and dyes from mixed waste stream,” Bioresour Technol, 2014, [Online]. Available:

A. Mishra, S. P. Mishra, A. Arshi, A. Agarwal, and ..., “Plant-microbe interactions for bioremediation and phytoremediation of environmental pollutants and agro-ecosystem development,” … of Industrial Waste for …, 2020, doi: 10.1007/978-981-13-3426-9_17.

M. Mohammadi-Sichani, M. M. Assadi, and ..., “Ability of Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus ostreatus and Ganoderma lucidum compost in biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil,” International journal of …, 2019, doi: 10.1007/s13762-017-1636-0.

L. Naranjo‐Briceño, B. Pernía, M. Guerra, and ..., “Potential role of oxidative exoenzymes of the extremophilic fungus Pestalotiopsis palmarum BM‐04 in biotransformation of extra‐heavy crude oil,” Microbial …, 2013, doi: 10.1111/1751-7915.12067.

K. Narayanan, N. Chopade, P. V Raj, V. M. Subrahmanyam, and ..., Fungal chitinase production and its application in biowaste management. NISCAIR-CSIR, India, 2013.

M. Neifar, S. Maktouf, R. E. Ghorbel, and ..., “Extremophiles as source of novel bioactive compounds with industrial potential,” Biotechnology of …, 2015, doi: 10.1002/9781118733103.ch10.

P. S. Nigam, “Microbial enzymes with special characteristics for biotechnological applications,” Biomolecules, 2013, [Online]. Available:

Y. Park, S. Liu, T. Gardner, D. Johnson, and ..., “Biohybrid nanofibers containing manganese oxide–forming fungi for heavy metal removal from water,” … Fibers and Fabrics, 2020, doi: 10.1177/1558925019898954.

R. M. Pawar, The effect of soil pH on degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons., 2012. [Online]. Available:

I. J. Pickering, R. C. Prince, M. J. George, R. D. Smith, and ..., “Reduction and coordination of arsenic in Indian mustard,” Plant …, 2000, [Online]. Available:

G. Qin, D. Gong, and M. Y. Fan, “Bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil by biostimulation amended with biochar,” International Biodeterioration &Biodegradation, 2013, [Online]. Available:

I. M. M. Gillespie and J. C. Philp, “Bioremediation, an environmental remediation technology for the bioeconomy,” Trends Biotechnol, 2013, [Online]. Available:

E. C. M. Lacerda, M. dos Passos Galluzzi Baltazar, and ..., “Copper biosorption from an aqueous solution by the dead biomass of Penicillium ochrochloron,” Environmental …, 2019, doi: 10.1007/s10661-019-7399-y.




How to Cite

Al-Fayaad, D. B. M., Khudhair, S. H., & Mohammed, A. S. (2024). Role of Fungi in Bioremediation and Environmental Pollution: A Review Article. International Journal of Biological Engineering and Agriculture, 3(2), 59–67. Retrieved from